Showing posts with label Erleada. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Erleada. Show all posts

Thursday, June 3, 2021

Brief, intense radiation and hormone therapy for very high risk prostate cancer

(updated)

As we've seen, brachy boost therapy seems to have the best oncological results for men with very high-risk prostate cancer. But brachy boost therapy entails 20-25 external beam radiation treatments plus the invasive placement of radioactive seeds or needles plus at least 18 months of testosterone suppression. While the oncological results are excellent, with about 80% cure rates, there is significant risk of serious late-term urinary retention. In some men, testosterone never fully recovers.

McBride et al. reported the early results of the AASUR trial. The goal of the trial was to find a treatment with equivalent oncological outcomes, but one that is easier on the patient, with less risk of long-term toxicity. They recruited 64 patients at 4 top institutions (Memorial Sloan Kettering, Johns Hopkins, University of Michigan, and Thomas Jefferson University). All patients were "very high risk," defined as:

  • any Gleason score (GS) 9 or 10, or
  • 4 or more cores of GS 8, or
  • 2 high-risk features (stage T3/4, GS 8, or PSA>20)
  • No metastases (N0, M0)

Patients were treated with:

  • SBRT (7.5-8.0 Gy x 5 treatments)
  • 6 months of Lupron, Erleada, and Zytiga

After 30 months of follow-up:

  • 90% were free of biochemical failure
  • Median PSA at the last follow-up was 0.1
  • PSA remained undetectable in 40%
  • Testosterone rose to non-castrate levels at a median of 6.5 months after hormone therapy ended, and almost all rose to >150 ng/dl
  • 23% experienced transient serious toxicities, mostly hypertension
  • Quality of life scores at 1 year held for urinary and rectal domains but declined in sexual and hormone domains.

How do these results compare to other trials of radiation+ADT in high-risk patients?

Lin et al. used whole pelvic IMRT with an SBRT boost to the prostate and 2 years of ADT in 41 high- and very high-risk patients. With 4 years of follow-up, they reported 92% biochemical recurrence-free survival (bRFS).

Hoskin et al. used high dose rate brachytherapy as a monotherapy in 86 high-risk patients. Most (80%) had adjuvant ADT for a median of 6.3 months (range 1-40 months). With 4 years of follow-up, they report 87% biochemical recurrence-free survival (bRFS) among high-risk patients.

Zapatero et al. reported the results of the DART 01.03 GICOR trial of escalated dose IMRT with either short-term (4 months) or long-term (28 months) ADT. There were 185 high-risk patients with about half getting each ADT protocol. About a quarter received simultaneous radiation of their pelvic lymph nodes. With 5 years of follow-up, they report 76% bRFS among high-risk patients who got short-term ADT and 88% bRFS among high-risk patients who got long-term ADT.

(Update) Murthy et al. reported results of a trial where 224 men with ≥ 20% risk of pelvic lymph node metastases were screened with PSMA PET scans and were randomized to get whole pelvic radiation with a boost to the prostate or prostate-only radiation. They all received 2 years of adjuvant ADT. With 5 years of follow-up, they reported 95% bRFS. 

This table summarizes these trials:


AASUR

SBRT boost

(Lin)

HDR-BT

(Hoskin)

IMRT

DART 

GICOR

IMRT

DART 

GICOR

IMRT

POP-RT

follow-up

2.5 yrs

4 yrs

4 yrs

5 yrs

5 yrs

5 yrs

Radiation

SBRT

IMRT+

SBRT boost

HDR-BT 

monotherapy

IMRT 

(dose escalated)

IMRT 

(dose escalated)

WP:50Gy/25fx

boost:18Gy/25fx

Coverage 

area over 

prostate

SV

Whole pelvic 

±SV (if MRI+)

• SV

• 27% 

whole pelvic

• SV

• 19%

 whole pelvic

Whole pelvic

Adjuvant 

hormone 

therapy

ADT+Zytiga+Erleada

93% ADT

80% ADT

ADT

ADT

ADT

Duration of 

hormone 

therapy

6 mos.

2 yrs

6.3 mos.

4 mos.

28 mos.

2 yrs

Risk

VHR

78% HR

22% VHR

HR

HR

HR

≥20% LN risk

bRFS

89%

92%

87%

76%

88%

95%

HR=high risk VHR=very high risk SV=seminal vesicles bRFS=biochemical recurrence-free survival: PSA stayed lower than nadir+2.0 ng/ml

2.5 years of follow-up is too early to draw valid conclusions. We see that most of the trials had higher bRFS even with much longer follow-up; however, only AASUR recruited very high-risk patients exclusively. ICECAP has shown that only metastasis-free survival is a valid surrogate endpoint for overall survival. A trial on high-risk patients will have to run for 8-10 years to collect a sufficient number of metastases to draw valid conclusions, so we can only look at this as an early signal.

Treatment of Pelvic Lymph Nodes

We know that the time to be able to see the first few cancerous pelvic lymph nodes is often several years, so 2.5 years of follow-up tells us little. The newly approved PSMA PET scans will be able to rule out the larger metastases (>5 mm), but will never be able to find metastases smaller than that. Waiting for visibility to make the decision to treat is a bad idea. By the time some lymph nodes are large enough or rapidly growing, the risk of spread outside the pelvic lymph node drainage area increases, and the hope of a cure may vanish.

The PSMA PET/CT is nevertheless worthwhile. While a negative scan does not change the treatment decision, a positive scan may detect occult metastases or pelvic lymph nodes that may benefit from a higher spot dose and more intense or longer hormone therapy.

We rely on validated formulas to tell us the probability that there are microscopic pelvic lymph node metastases. Two of the popular formulas are the Roach Equation (discussed here) and the Yale Formula (discussed here).

There is a risk of overtreatment. Many high-risk patients will never require pelvic lymph node treatment, and we are awaiting evidence (RTOG 0924) that such treatment will improve survival. As we have seen, bRFS is improved.

However, the only risk is that toxicity will be higher when the whole pelvis is treated. Murthy et al. showed that even at higher doses of pelvic lymph node radiation, there was no increase in acute toxicity, late gastrointestinal toxicity, and no deterioration in patient-reported quality of life scores.

Arguably, 25 extra IMRT treatments to the pelvic lymph nodes represent a patient inconvenience over the 5 SBRT prostate-only treatments. In the UCLA and Sunnybrook high-risk SBRT trials (discussed here), the pelvic lymph nodes may be treated (to 25 Gy) within the same 5 treatments. So far, with limited follow-up, cancer control is high and toxicity is low.

Hormone therapy intensification

The DART 01.05 GICOR trial proved that long-term (28 months vs 4 months) ADT improves survival in high-risk patients even when treated with dose-escalated IMRT. Nabid et al. proved that 18 months is often as good as 36 months. AASUR suggests that by including both Zytiga and Erleada, the duration of hormone therapy can be shortened. But the sexual and hormone quality of life did diminish. This raises questions that can only be answered in an expanded randomized clinical trial:

  • Are all 3 medications (Zytiga, Erleada, and Lupron) necessary for the benefit? The ACIS trial found that adding Erleada increased radiographic progression-free survival in mCRPC patients. There was no such synergy found in adding Xtandi to Zytiga in this non-randomized trial.
  • Do they add much to Lupron alone if whole pelvic radiation is given?
  • Does Lupron alone for, say, 9 months, with whole-pelvic SBRT (as in the UCLA trial) afford the same benefit with less toxicity? And would Orgovyx instead of Lupron allow for earlier testosterone recovery?
  • Can genomics (Prolaris or Decipher of biopsy tissue) identify patients who might benefit from the combined hormone therapy?



Saturday, December 7, 2019

Optimal chemohormonal sequencing for mCRPC MAY be Taxotere->Zytiga->Jevtana->Xtandi

(1) Taxotere (docetaxel) first

In a retrospective study presented at the Society for Urologic Oncology meeting,  researchers at the Mayo Clinic reported on 112 patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC).

  • Group A (80 men) had docetaxel (Taxotere) followed by one of the second-line hormonal therapies: either abiraterone (Zytiga) or enzalutamide (Xtandi)
  • Group B (32 men) had a second-line hormonal therapy followed by Taxotere.
  • Bone metastases were more common in Group B (87%) than Group A (58%)

Three-year survival was:

  • cancer-specific survival: 87% Group A vs 64% Group B
  • overall survival: 82% Group A vs 61% Group B
  • results were similar for men with high volume metastases, excluding those with lymph node-only
This was not a prospective randomized clinical trial. It reaches a different conclusion from a couple of earlier retrospective analyses.  Sonpavde et al.  reported an analysis of 1445 patients at VA hospitals. They found no difference in overall survival among those who started with taxanes vs. those that started with a second-line hormonal therapy. In a study at Johns Hopkins, Maughan et al. reported that there were no statistically significant differences in total progression-free survival related to the order in which the medicines (Taxotere or Zytiga) were given. Both studies adjusted for disease characteristics.

In the STAMPEDE trial of newly diagnosed men with metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer (mHSPC), there was no difference in survival among men who were randomized to get Taxotere or Zytiga first (see this link). The difference in the Mayo study may be due to "selection bias" in the retrospective study - Group A may have received Taxotere first because they were healthier, and more likely to survive.

But even if the survival difference is an artifact of the study methodology, there are other reasons to do Taxotere first:
  • Side effects are less when chemo is given earlier
  • In fact, side effects are no worse for chemo or Zytiga (see this link). The differences are in the kinds of side effects, but not in their seriousness.
  • By starting with 6 infusions of Taxotere, one is able to use Zytiga after only 15 weeks; but if one starts with Zytiga, it may be 3 years before Taxotere can be tried (see this link).
There doesn't seem to be any cross-resistance between taxanes and Zytiga (as there is between Zytiga and Xtandi). A pilot trial combined the two without finding excessive toxicity, and larger trials of the combination are ongoing; for example, this one. However, a randomized trial of docetaxel+Xtandi vs docetaxel alone found there was no survival advantage to combining them, but toxicity was higher with the combination.

(2) Zytiga (abiraterone) before Xtandi (enzalutamide)

Khalaf et al reported the results of a randomized Phase 2 trial in British Columbia. 202 newly diagnosed mCRPC men were randomized to either Zytiga or Xtandi first. After progressing on the first therapy, they were given the second therapy (cross-over).
  • The Zytiga-first men progressed after 19 months vs 15 months in the Xtandi-first group
  • After cross-over, PSA was reduced by more than 30% in 36% of those who had Xtandi-second vs only in 4% of those who had Zytiga-second
Until we have a larger study that follows men for the rest of their lives, we can assume that the extended progression-free time among those who use Zytiga before Xtandi will translate to extended survival.

It's worth noting that it has been found that Zytiga can work a median of 10 months longer if one switches from prednisone (10 mg/day) to dexamethasone (0.5 mg/day) when progression begins (see this link).

A trial combining Zytiga and Xtandi (+ADT) found there was no benefit to combining the two drugs, but toxicity was worse than Xtandi (+ADT) alone. A small trial of Zytiga monotherapy (without ADT) showed that it can reduce testosterone on its own and another small trial suggested that oncological outcomes were not compromised by the monotherapy.

(Update 2/9/21) A trial combining Zytiga and Erleada (+ADT) found there was a benefit in radiographic progression-free survival (rPFS) to combining the two drugs. rPFS was extended 6 months (from 17 mos. to 23 mos.) by the combination compared to Zytiga (+ADT) alone. With median follow-up of 55 months, there was no significant difference in overall survival. Unlike Xtandi, Erleada reduces androgen receptor expression.

(3) Jevtana (cabazitaxel) third

Jevtana is currently FDA-approved for men in whom Taxotere has already been tried and failed. Jevtana and Taxotere (both taxanes) have been found to be virtually identical in oncological results when given as first-line therapy (see this link) with a similar degree of toxicity. If Taxotere and one of the second-line hormonal therapies (Zytiga or Xtandi) have already been tried, is it better to try the other second-line hormonal therapy next or is Jevtana a better choice for the third therapy? De Wit et al. found the answer in the CARD randomized clinical trial..

They randomized patients who already had Taxotere and one of the two second-line hormonal to receive either the other second-line hormonal or Jevtana.
  • 126 received Jevtana
  • 58 received Zytiga
  • 66 received Xtandi
After 9.2 months median follow-up, 
  • Imaging-based progression-free survival was 8.0 months for Jevtana vs 3.7 months for the hormonal therapy
  • The advantage for Jevtana was maintained regardless of risk characteristics and treatment history
  • The advantage for Jevtana was true regardless of which hormonal therapy it was compared to.
  • Overall survival was 13.6 months for Jevtana vs 11.0 months for hormonals.
  • PSA was reduced by at least 50% in 36% of men using Jevtana vs 14% using hormonals.
  • Tumors shrank in 37% of men using Jevtana vs 12% using hormonals
  • Serious adverse events of any grade were similar for all therapies at 39%.
  • Adverse events leading to death were more frequent with the hormonals (11%) than Jevtana (6%)
  • Pain was improved more by Jevtana (in 45% of men) than by hormonals (in 19% of men)
  • Skeletal events (fractures, spinal compression) occurred more frequently among those taking hormonals (51%) than Jevtana (29%)

Jevtana was at least as good or had a clear advantage on every measure of success.

(Update 9/16/20) Fizazi et al. reported the Quality of Life (QOL) outcomes of the CARD trial (above).
  • Pain response was better with Jevtana  than hormonals (46% vs 19%)
  • Time to pain progression was about twice as long with Jevtana (hazard ratio (HR)= 0.55)
  • Time to next symptomatic skeletal event was similarly longer with Jevtana (HR= 0.59)
  • Function scores and time to deterioration of function scores (e.g., ability to self-care, perform usual activities, mobility, mental status, sense of well-being, social/family well-being) were better with Jevtana



(4) Xtandi fourth

There is some evidence that taxanes (like Taxotere or Jevtana) can reverse one mode of hormonal resistance (AR-V7 splice variance). Research continues on methods to reverse resistance (e.g., see subsection - "what's next?"). Although there is known cross-resistance between Zytiga and Xtandi, Xtandi usually works at least for a while after Zytiga.

Other medicines

Other medicines approved for men with mCRPC include older anti-androgens (like bicalutamide), Xofigo, Provenge, and Keytruda (but only in the rare event of MSI-hi/dMMR). It would save time if any of these could safely be piggybacked on top of another therapy.

Older anti-androgens (like Casodex or flutamide) are still used sometimes in the mCRPC setting, mostly in combination with a GnRH agonist (like Lupron). The combination is somewhat more beneficial (see this link) than a GnRH agonist alone, and provides a short-term benefit at low cost. Sometimes, the cancer learns how to feed on the anti-androgen, and removing it leads to a reduction in PSA (called antiandrogen withdrawal syndrome). Newer antiandrogens don't seem to do this as much, although it has been observed in a minority of patients for abiraterone and enzalutamide.

It is unknown where the newest antiandrogens fit into sequencing. Erleada and Nubeqa have been approved for other indications, but not yet for mCRPC. Others (like proxalutamide) haven't yet cleared the first hurdle.

Xofigo cannot be prescribed after any visceral metastases have been detected, although it may work well on the bone metastases nevertheless. It works better sooner rather than later, but a trial combining it with Zytiga was stopped early because of a high rate of skeletal events. Early results of a new trial combining Xofigo and Xtandi show that adding a bone-protective agent (Xgeva or Zometa)  can ameliorate the problem.

Provenge may synergize with radiotherapies or chemo because they present many cancer antigens for the amped up immune system to tune into. There is some evidence to suggest that it synergizes with Xofigo. There is evidence that an abscopal effect (systemic immune response) may be augmented. Other immunotherapies, which show little therapeutic promise alone, may be beneficial in combination with chemo or other therapies.

PARP inhibitors are in clinical trials, and seem to be especially effective when there are BRCA1/2 mutations (germline or somatic). Several clinical trials are combing carboplatin with taxanes. Transdermal estrogen is inexpensive and is available now. Optimal sequencing or combinations are yet to be determined. 

Lu-177-PSMA-617 and similar radiopharmaceuticals are in ongoing trials. (Update: see this link.) The VISION trial used it only among men who had been pre-treated with chemo and Zytiga or Xtandi. If it gets FDA approval, it will be limited to use after those other treatments. However, trials are ongoing for earlier use and in combination therapy. There is probably an optimum time for use of PSMA-directed therapies. Combination with different PSMA-targeted radionuclides (like Ac-225), and with multiple membrane targets are being explored.

There are myriad other potential therapies in clinical trials. Many are pathway growth inhibitors that may work best in combinations. Therapies tailored to specific genomic mutations are in their infancy.


Thursday, May 16, 2019

Two new advanced hormonal agents (apalutamide and enzalutamide) increase survival in metastatic hormone sensitive prostate cancer (mHSPC)

Erleada (apalutamide) has already been FDA-approved for use in non-metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (non-m CRPC), which affects relatively few men (remembering that metastatic was defined by bone scan/CT rather than PET scan). Now we have evidence that it increases overall survival in men with metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer (mHSPC).

Chi et al. reported the early results of the TITAN randomized clinical trial at the ASCO meeting. The trial was conducted at 230 sites in the US and internationally. Patients received 240 mg/day of apalutamide (n=525) or placebo (n=527) plus ADT.

  • It was double blinded.
  • Prior treatments were allowed.
  • 8% had prior treatment for localized PC
  • 11% had prior docetaxel
  • 63% had high-volume metastases
  • 37% had low-volume metastases
After almost 2 years median follow-up, the outcomes were as follows:
  • Apalutamide reduced mortality by 33%
  • Apalutamide reduced radiographic progression or mortality by 52%
  • Benefit was seen in all subgroups (i.e, volume of metastases and prior treatments)
  • Time to docetaxel treatment was 61% longer in men getting apalutamide.
  • Because of the success, men getting placebo were allowed to get apalutamide
  • Grade 3 (serious) and grade 4 (life-threatening) toxicities were similar in both groups (41-42%)
  • Discontinuations due to adverse events were low in both groups (8% for apalutamide, 5% for placebo)
(Update 9/18/19 It has been FDA approved for this indication).

Xtandi (enzalutamide) has been FDA-approved since 2012 for mCRPC after docetaxel and since 2014 for mCRPC before docetaxel. Sweeney et al.  reported the results of the ENZAMET randomized clinical trial at the ASCO meeting and in the NEJM. 1,125 patients at 82 sites in Australia, New Zealand, Ireland, Canada, and the UK received 160 mg/day of enzalutamide plus ADT or a first-generation anti-androgen (AA) (bicalutamide, nilutamide, or flutamide) plus ADT. It was unblinded and was reported earlier than expected.
  • 3-year overall survival (3yrOS) was 79% for enzalutamide vs 72% for AA (Hazard Ratio = 0.66 - statistically significant)
  • For men with high volume metastases, 3yrOS was 71% for enzalutamide vs 63% for AA (Hazard Ratio = 0.74 - not statistically significant)
  • For men with low volume metastases, 3yrOS was 89% for enzalutamide vs 82% for AA (Hazard Ratio = 0.48 -  statistically significant)
  • For men who also planned to receive early docetaxel, 3yrOS was 73% for enzalutamide vs 74% for AA (Hazard Ratio = 0.91 - not statistically significant)
  • For men who did not plan to receive early docetaxel, 3yrOS was 83% for enzalutamide vs 70% for AA (Hazard Ratio = 0.51 - statistically significant)
Toxicity was higher for enzalutamide:
  • Serious adverse events occurred in 42% of those taking enzalutamide vs 34% for AA
  • Treatment discontinuation due to adverse events occurred in 33 patients taking enzalutamide vs 14 patients for AA
  • Adverse events were higher in those who had taken docetaxel
  • Fatigue was more common for men taking enzalutamide
  • Seizures occurred in 7 patients taking enzalutamide and no patients for AA
(update 12/16/2019: It has been FDA approved for this indication)

Based on these successes, I'm sure the FDA will fast-track approval for both drugs for this new indication, joining Zytiga and Taxotere. Because they are already available for another indication, insurance may allow them off-label even sooner. The cost for either is about $12,000 for a 30-day supply. It is unknown if they are any more effective than abiraterone, which is now available as a new formulation called Yonsa for about $10,000 per month.

Tuesday, June 6, 2017

Newly diagnosed, metastatic (M1), but still hormone sensitive - best options

(Frequently Updated)

In the US, only 3% of new patients are newly diagnosed with metastatic, hormone-sensitive prostate cancer (mHSPC). "Metastatic," for the purposes of this analysis only includes distant metastases (Stage M1), but not pelvic lymph node metastases (Stage N1). This group has been the subject of many major randomized clinical trials over the last few years. CHAARTED, in the US, randomized to early docetaxel + androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) compared to ADT alone. STAMPEDE, in the UK and Switzerland,  has published several studies: one on the use of Zometa and Celebrex, one on docetaxel,  one on abiraterone+prednisolone (I'll refer to this combination as Zytiga), and two on debulking the prostate with radiation (one from STAMPEDE and one from HORRAD). They also included men with locally advanced and recurrent prostate cancer, which we will address at another time (see this link). 

LATITUDE was a multinational clinical trial comparing Zytiga+ADT to ADT alone. TITAN was a multinational trial comparing apalutamide (Erleada) +ADT to ADT alone. ENZAMET was a multinational trial comparing enzalutamide (Xtandi) + ADT to early antiandrogens +ADT. ARCHES assessed the effect of enzalutamide on radiographic progression-free survival. TITAN and ENZAMET are discussed in more detail here.

We can look at hazard ratios for overall survival. A hazard ratio (HR) of, say, 0.60 means that the treatment reduced the number of deaths by 40% compared to the standard treatment. Unless it is otherwise noted, the HRs we talk about are all statistically significant with 95% confidence.

Early use of docetaxel

The hazard ratios found for all metastatic men were as follows:
CHAARTED: 0.61
STAMPEDE: 0.81
GETUG-15: 0.90 (not statistically significant)

The hazard ratios for men with high volume mets only were:
CHAARTED: 0.60
GETUG-15: 0.8 (not statistically significant)
STAMPEDE: 0.81 (not statistically significant)

The hazard ratio for men with low volume mets only were:
CHAARTED: 1.03 (not statistically significant)
STAMPEDE: 0.76 (not statistically significant)

GETUG-15 was a French randomized clinical trial. It has been criticized for including men with more advanced disease than CHAARTED. When STAMPEDE showed similar results to CHAARTED, GETUG-15 was largely ignored, and early use of docetaxel became the new standard of care. Some argued that the  results of STAMPEDE and CHAARTED suggest that docetaxel should be considered for among all metastatic men, but a CHAARTED update suggests a benefit only among those with high volume of metastases. However, a STAMPEDE update showed no difference in overall survival or failure-free survival between the two subgroups. The STAMPEDE authors point to their larger trial and that their analysis applies more to newly diagnosed men, whereas the CHAARTED groups had more previously treated men. They advocate early use of docetaxel regardless of metastatic burden. (High volume was defined as visceral metastases or 4 or more bone mets with at least one beyond the pelvis or vertebrae.)

One should resist the temptation to compare HRs across studies. Each study had different patient characteristics, and PSA screening policies differ markedly in those countries. In fact, a recent analysis of the STAMPEDE outcomes of men who were randomly assigned to either Zytiga or docetaxel found that there was no difference in survival between the two treatments (see this link).

Early use of Zytiga

The hazard ratios found for all metastatic men were as follows:
LATITUDE: 0.66
STAMPEDE: 0.61

An unplanned secondary analysis presented at ESMO 2018 and published in European Urology looked at high volume vs low volume, and found it worked equally well in both situations:

The hazard ratios for men with high volume mets only were:
STAMPEDE: 0.60

The hazard ratio for men with low volume mets only were:
STAMPEDE: 0.64

Early use of Zytiga+Docetaxel

Overall survival is not available yet, but radiographic progression-free survival increased by 2.5 years (from 2.0 to 4.5 yrs) with the addition of abiraterone to docetaxel. Time to castration resistance increased by 1.7 yrs (from 1.5 to 3.2 yrs). See discussion of early results of PEACE1.

Early use of Erleada

The hazard ratio for metastatic men was 0.67

Early use of Xtandi

The  hazard ratio for all metastatic men was 0.66

The hazard ratio for men with high volume mets only was 0.74 - not statistically significant

The hazard ratio for men with low volume mets only was 0.48 - statistically significant


Early use of Debulking

The hazard ratios found for all metastatic men were as follows:
STAMPEDE: 0.92  (not statistically significant)
HORRAD:  0.90 (not statistically significant)

The hazard ratios for men with high volume mets only were:
STAMPEDE: 1.07 (not statistically significant)

The hazard ratio for men with low volume mets only were:
STAMPEDE: 0.68 (statistically significant)

Early use of Zometa+Celebrex

The hazard ratios found for all metastatic men were as follows:
STAMPEDE: 0.78 (see this link)

Which is best? 

The no-brainer here is Zometa+Celebrex. As long as the patient doesn't have contraindications like heart disease or bad teeth, it is cheap, non-toxic, and reduced risk of death by 22% at the 43 month follow-up. Zometa is usually given along with ADT anyway, so it is hard to argue against including this combination along with Zytiga, Erleada or docetaxel. However, the use of Zometa when one is still hormone-sensitive is controversial. An argument can be made for putting it off until there is evidence of osteoporosis on a DEXA scan - the risk of the worst side effect- osteonecrosis of the jaw - increases with the amount of time taking it.

The hormonal therapies have differing modes of action, but without a randomized clinical trial, it's impossible to say that one extends life more than the others. Xtandi and Zytiga are being compared in an ongoing arm of STAMPEDE. Zytiga prevents the formation of androgens by the adrenal glands and via intra-tumoral synthesis. A recent study suggests that it stops formation of testosterone by the testicles as well. Xtandi and Erleada block the androgen receptor and prevents its translocation into the nucleus, where it can invigorate the cancer even without outside androgens. Erleada also prevents "upgrading" of the androgen receptor - a mode of castration resistance where multiple copies of the androgen receptor appear on the cancer cell, so it can be activated by even the slightest amount of androgen. However, it is unknown whether it slows down castration resistance in clinical practice - the cancer cell evolves many workarounds. A small trial found that combining Zytiga and Xtandi did not improve survival in the castration-resistant setting. 

Because neither docetaxel nor Zytiga showed a clear survival advantage when men were randomized to one or the other (Sydes et al.), the decision must be made based on other factors.

Both docetaxel and Zytiga increase toxicity over ADT alone. In the LATITUDE trial, physicians reported grade 3-5 (serious to death) events among 68% taking Zytiga vs 52% on ADT only. Higher rates of grade 3 hypertension and hyperkalemia were observed. In the STAMPEDE trial, physicians reported grade 3-5 events among 47% of those taking Zytiga vs. 33% of those taking ADT only. Higher rates of hypertension and liver enzyme elevation were observed. In the TITAN trial (Erleada), where almost two-thirds had high-volume metastases, Grade 3 (serious) and Grade 4 (life-threatening) toxicities were similar (41-42%) for those who got apalutamide or placebo. In the ENZAMET trial, serious side effects were experienced by 42% of those taking Xtandi vs 34% of those taking an early antiandrogen. The rate of serious side effects is remarkably similar.

In the docetaxel trials, STAMPEDE reported grade 3-5 events among 52% taking docetaxel vs 32% taking ADT only. Neutropenia, lethargy and GI disorders were especially elevated. CHAARTED reported grade 3-5 events among 30% taking docetaxel. Neutropenia, fatigue, gastrointestinal and allergic reactions were elevated.

One might expect that the increase in toxic events would have been worse with docetaxel, but while they were different in kind, the incidence of all events requiring medical attention was similar for both treatments. All medicines seem to have lower incidence of side effects when they are used earlier, while patients are healthier.

High volume/low volume of metastases

Planned subgroup analyses of both CHAARTED and STAMPEDE showed that certain different therapies may improve survival depending on the number of distant metastases found using a bone scan/CT. Remember that high volume was arbitrarily defined as visceral metastases or 4 or more bone mets with at least one beyond the pelvis or vertebrae; low volume is anything less than that (often referred to as oligometastatic).

For men who are diagnosed with a low volume of metastases (oligometastatic), debulking can add to survival. STAMPEDE recruited participants before the benefit of early Zytiga was known, so it is unknown how the two therapies might interact. It is reasonable to speculate that early Zytiga may be used to radio-sensitize the cancer to debulking with radiation. The role of metastasis-directed SBRT has yet to be proven, but may be considered when safe to do so.

In a post-hoc analysis of LATITUDE data, men with high volume disease benefited from early use of Zytiga, but men with low volume disease did not. In STAMPEDE, there was no difference - Zytiga was equally effective in both groups. Erleada also seems to be equally effective in both groups. However, LATITUDE had mostly high-volume disease men in its sample. For men with a high volume of metastases, docetaxel or Zytiga (but not debulking) may confer a survival benefit). Xtandi seems to benefit most those with low volume of metastases.


Can they be combined or sequenced?

The PEACE-1 trial showed that the combination of docetaxel and Zytiga improved outcomes significantly.

A major clinical trial, ACIS, found that the combination of Erleada and Zytiga increased radiographic progression-free survival in men who were already castration-resistant. That combination improved results (in the AASUR trial) when given as an adjuvant therapy along with prostate radiation to men with very high-risk localized prostate cancer, and will be testedamong high-risk patients with high Decipher scores in the PREDICT-RT trial. The combination is being tried along with salvage radiation in men who have failed prostatectomy in the INNOVATE trial. An ongoing clinical trial is investigating whether Erleada combined with Zytiga extends survival in the relapsed hormone-sensitive setting.

There is a hint that docetaxel may have some efficacy in keeping Zytiga working longer. The androgen receptor always eventually becomes resistant to the effect of Zytiga. Sometimes resistance is attributable to a change in the androgen receptor called "the AR-V7 splice variant." There was a very small (n=14) trial at JH where they were looking at the role of the AR-V7 splice variant in resistance to second-line hormonals (Zytiga or Xtandi). In a few guys (6 out of 14) who were AR-V7 positive after that hormone therapy, they became AR-V7 negative after docetaxel treatment. This is also an effect that they were hoping that supraphysiological doses of testosterone might sometimes create (see this link).

This may work both ways. Hormonal agents may even re-sensitize the cancer to docetaxel after it has become docetaxel-resistant (see this link). It may turn out that alternating the use of chemo and advanced hormonals (and testosterone!) is a good strategy.

For logistical reasons, it may be useful to start with six cycles of docetaxel, which would take 15 weeks. In this way, Zytiga, Erleada or Xtandi can begin 15 weeks later. If one starts with Zytiga, it may take three or more years before it stops working and docetaxel can be tried (Among metastatic men, failure-free survival was about 4 years in STAMPEDE, radiographic progression-free survival was 33 months in LATITUDE). It seems that one can receive more therapies in less time if a patient begins with docetaxel.

It is possible that concomitant early use of Zytiga and docetaxel may have a synergistic effect on the cancer, and in preventing the onset of Zytiga resistance. This is pure conjecture and would have to be proved in a clinical trial. The downside is the cumulative side effects.

The other possibility is starting with docetaxel only and following up with the combination of Zytiga +ADT. By holding off on ADT use, it might delay some of the selective evolutionary pressure that leads to early Zytiga resistance. It is unknown whether early docetaxel without ADT has similar efficacy to the combination. Again, this is a good hypothesis to be tested in a clinical trial.


Will Provenge, Xofigo and Jevtana also be more beneficial if used earlier?

Isn't earlier always better? Not necessarily (see this link). Cancer is a moving target, continually altering its genetic make-up. What works when cancer is in one state may not necessarily work when cancer is in another state. There can be unpredictable interactions. Early and prolonged use of bicalutamide, for example, may actually eventually increase the cancer growth rate; yet, with cancers that have become castration-resistant, adding bicalutamide may sometimes slow it down.

Although Provenge is more effective when the patient's disease is less progressed (see this link), it was not any more effective when used for mHSPC (see this link). Xofigo is in a clinical trial for mHSPC, and Jevtana is in trials for use before docetaxel.

What about nuclear medicines?

An exciting new field is the use of nuclear medicines (alpha-emitters like Xofigo, and beta-emitters like Lu-177-PSMA). Their use has historically been restricted to men with mCRPC. There is a clinical trial of Lu-177-PSMA for men who are castration-resistant but are not yet detectably metastatic (see this link). The hope is that they can seek out and destroy micrometastases that may be in systemic circulation.

What happens if they are used later?

Most of the advanced prostate cancer medicines were approved for men who were metastatic and castration-resistant (mCRPC). In that setting, docetaxel adds a median survival of 3 months (see this link), compared to a median of 17 additional months among men with high volume metastases in the CHAARTED trial. Zytiga adds 4 months to survival among men who are castration-resistant and have had chemo (see this link). Median (50%) survival has not been reached with the limited follow-up of the STAMPEDE trial, but we can look at 60% survival and  note that the curves are diverging, so the median survival improvement is at least this large. In STAMPEDE, early Zytiga increased median survival by at least 18 months; In LATITUDE, early Zytiga increased median survival by 16.8 months.

We might surmise that if used after metastatic diagnosis but before castration-resistance sets in, the survival improvement might be somewhere in between. However, long-term use of ADT drives changes in the androgen receptor that might shorten the time during which Zytiga is effective. Docetaxel, on the other hand, remains effective even after advanced hormonal agents have been utilized.

What are the other alternatives for metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer (mHSPC)?

Supraphysiological doses of testosterone alternating with ADT (called Bipolar Androgen Therapy or BAT) has shown efficacy in some men (see this link). Expanded trials will tell us which men are most likely to benefit from it.

Treatment of the prostate even after metastases have been discovered  (called "debulking") is an intriguing prospect. However, the most recent reported arm of the STAMPEDE trial showed that prostate-only radiation only provided a survival benefit in oligometastatic men (see this link). There are clinical trials at MD Anderson and Rutgers (not recruiting), and registries at UT Southwestern and MSKCC and the Los Angeles VA that will further explore this opportunity. Princess Margaret Hospital in Toronto is using SBRT for this purpose (see this link). Other trials are ongoing in Europe (this one includes docetaxel and Zytiga): Ghent, and Hamburg.

Other early-use therapies are combined with ADT in clinical trials. These are no longer recruiting:
These are still recruiting: